The shear-cell technology, transforms vegetable protein – be it soy, wheat, pea, rapeseed or corn – into a layered, fibrous structure that closely match the appearance and texture of steak.

FoodNavigator reported on the ingredient in 2015 when the researchers teamed up with Dutch food manufacturer The Vegetarian Butcher. They have since added industry giants Unilever, Givaudan, Ingredion, French agri-food giant Avril to their list of partners and the first products are expected to hit the shelves in 2019.

The processing methods, which are mild and have a smaller carbon footprint than conventional methods such as extrusion, have only been available at lab- and pilot- scale, and the Plant Meat Matters project is the first to scale it up.